11.5 Diet: Cold Chain Distribution

Author: Atifa Nasiri

ABSTRACT: Diet Cold chain distribution is a system of temperature-controlled supply chain management transporting and distributing refrigerated products. Which delivery and storage the cold chain product in a designated area. For example, temperature control, supply chain atmosphere, including department stores, pharmaceutical and chemical industries, manage and transport lifesaving products and other products. And this means that the cold chain system covers the product with its temperature-controlled system from production until its reach to consumers for consumption. Products that are kept frozen such as vegetables, fruit, meat, fish, pharmaceuticals and some chemicals, such as paint and vaccines need to be in a temperature monitor environment. With mass globalization and a busy schedule, people rely on cold chain products. Also, this is a continuous method, and we have to make sure about the quality and safety of the product from production to the end user’s consumption. Also, we must consider the efficient and environment-friendly resolution for all the cold chain supply to ensure a sustainable and healthy future. Free from any kinds of diseases that come or are born from cold chain products. There is significance for using diet cold chain distribution as cold chain delivering the product is of good quality and lasts longer, prevent waste, and avoid the virus that will harm a human being.

Image: Cold Chain Logistics Market by Application Type & Geography – 2024


According to the NRC “Greenhouse gas emission is a huge component and the cause of global warming occurrence,” (NRC, 2005). Countries around the world, organizations and businesses trying to reduce footprints as much as possible. For example, Wal-Mart has recently started to reduce GHG emissions from its supply chain by 18 million metric tons by 2015 (WALMART). Major organizations have committed significant attention to decrease the carbon dioxide in their supply chain and achieve sustainability targets. They are willing to take a risk for their brand value and in the long run. Also, they are “eager to fulfill and attract environmental well-educated customers,” (EPA, 2010). Because a new generation learns more about climate change, they rather make a choice to purchase a green environmentally green product.

The cold supply chains produced goods required to be put in storage and shipped at low temperatures near or below freezing. The use of refrigerated stores and trucks that use large amounts of energy for freezing. The higher energy consumption is correlated with higher carbon dioxide (CO2) emissions in power generation facilities. Moreover, refrigeration systems make use of large quantities of Hydrofluorocarbon (HFC) gases that have high global warming potential (GWP) and a very long lifetime in the atmosphere. Regular and catastrophic leakage of HFC gases from the cold supply chain represents a significant element of their global warming impact. Therefore, these gases need to be taken into account when determining the best design and operations of cold supply chains. the global warming impact due to GHG emissions. We consider the environmental effects of both CO2 emissions due to energy consumption and leakage of refrigerant gas in warehouses and vehicles.

The largest quantities of HFC gases. Which is, food processing such as fruit, fish, meat, vegetable, medicine, pharmacy, vaccine, cold storage and transportation applications contain about two-thirds of the total HFC quantities used in refrigeration applications and generate about the same percentage of HFC emissions (IPC, 2005). Therefore, incorporating the contribution of refrigerant gases while estimating the total global warming effect is mainly vital for businesses using these gases extensively. For example, it has been projected that in an environment with an average energy mix, the refrigerant emissions represent about 60 percent of the total emissions of GHG resulting from refrigeration system operation in the commercial sector, whereas the rest is indirect emissions caused by power production (IPC, 2005). Since most of the refrigerant emissions take place in the transportation and warehousing stages, it is essential to incorporate the greenhouse impact of refrigerant gases in the logistics/supply chain design models developed to decrease or control the environmental damage caused by these businesses and companies. Food cold chain and the climate change, on cold supply chains and carbon emissions. They conducted an in-depth examination of cold-chain decision-making at the three levels: strategic, tactical, and operational appropriate to different time spans, (Bozorgi et al, 2016).

The advantage of such a design is that individual temperature-controlled units can be turned off to save cost and energy when they are not needed. Only when one unit reaches its capacity will the next unit be “turned on. “As a result, there is a fixed(setup) cost for holding a group of items, which results in a step function to represent the fixed cost of turning on temperature-controlled units, in addition to the variable cost of holding items based on the number of units held in inventory. Consequently, a linear holding cost and emission function is not applicable to model this environment (Bozorgi,p115).


Cold supply chain systems, which require large amounts of energy to keep the products transported cool, represent a significant source of global carbon and greenhouse gas emissions. Groceries and medical goods are the two primary types of “cold” manufactured goods, in terms of the supply chain decision-making needed to improve financial and environmental sustainability. We first provide an overview of the characteristics that make cold supply chains distinct, with a focus on the two primary types of chains designed for the major types of products handled. To determine the amount of energy that needs to be used and not go to waste (Rinkinen,2017). The energy and mainly the food, vaccines, medicine, meats and of course sustainability, finding ways to deliver foods with good quality and last longer and not make waste or create a disease or virus.


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Atifa Nasiri is a 3rd year Fashion Design student at Ryerson. She has passion for Fashion, she loves to focus on asymmetrical design and sustainability fashion.

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